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History 12 Lesson 12: National democratic movement in Vietnam from 1919 to 1925

Compose History 12 Lesson 12 help grade 12 students summarize all their knowledge and answer historical questions about the National Democratic Movement in Vietnam from 1919 to 1925.

History 12 Lesson 12 compiled according to the textbook program on page 76 → 82. Thereby helping students quickly master the knowledge to study well in History. In addition, please refer to the history multiple choice questions 12 lesson 12. So here is the detailed content of the document, invite you to follow along here.

Summary of theory History 12 lessons 12


1. The second colonial exploitation policy of the French colonialists.

a. Reasons why France conducts mining:

– After World War I, France was severely damaged with more than 1.4 million dead and wounded, many cities, villages, factories, .. were destroyed, material damage was estimated at 200 billion Pharang.

⇒ To compensate for the damage caused by the war, right after the First World War, France stepped up the exploitation of the colonies in Indochina (but mainly in Vietnam).

b. Conduct time:

– The second French colonial exploitation program in Indochina (mainly in Vietnam) took place in the years 1919 – 1929.

c. France’s point of view when conducting colonial exploitation:

– Focus on investment in economic sectors: low capital, high profit, quick capital recovery; economic sectors that cannot compete with the domestic economy.

– Exploiting for the purpose of plundering, exploiting, not to develop the colonial economy.

Exploiting aims to turn Vietnam into an exclusive market of France.

d. Mining content:

– Agriculture:

+ Is the economic sector with the most attention and capital investment.

+ French colonists promoted the appropriation of land to establish plantations (mainly rubber plantations).

– Industry:

+ Focusing mainly on coal and metal mining (tin, zinc,…).

+ Limit the development of heavy industries; develop a number of light industries to take advantage of raw materials, labor and serve the daily life of France.

– Trade: monopolizing the Vietnamese market.

+ Heavy tax on goods from outside (China, Japan) imported into Vietnam.

+ Tax reduction or tax exemption for French goods.

– Development of transportation to serve mining and military purposes.

e. Impact of Second Colonial Exploitation on Vietnam

* Positive effects:

– Contributing to transforming the socio-economic life of Vietnam => creating internal conditions for the emergence and development of the path of national salvation in the direction of the proletariat.

– Capitalist production relations were gradually introduced into Vietnam => contributing to changing the economic face in some regions.

– Adding new forces to the patriotic movement (petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie…).

* Negative effects:

– Resources are exhausted.

– Deeply divided society.

– National culture is eroded.

– Ethnic conflict between the Vietnamese people and the French colonialists deepened.

2. Political, cultural and educational policies of the French colonialists.

a. Political, cultural and educational policy of France:

– Political:

+ Implement “divide and rule” policies; divide the national unity bloc of the Vietnamese people.

+ Strengthening the military apparatus, police, prisons, secret agents, …

+ Implement a number of political-administrative reforms.

– Regarding culture: implementing cultural policies, educating enslavement, encouraging superstitious activities, social evils, etc.

– Education: restricting the opening of schools; publish books and newspapers to propagate the “civilization” policy of the colonists and spread the illusion of peace, cooperate with the colonists to rob the country and the puppet kings to sell the country.

b. Consequences of French cultural and educational policies:

– Causing national inferiority mentality.

– Binding and restraining the Vietnamese people in ignorance and backwardness, weakening the race.

– The introduction of Western cultural flows into Vietnam leads to a situation of cultural and lifestyle hybridization.

3. New changes in economy and social class in Vietnam.

a. Economic transformation.

– Vietnam’s economy has a new development, but it is still in a state of poverty, backwardness and heavy dependence on the French economy.

– The change is only local in some areas, some localities (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Saigon, …)

b. Social change

Under the impact of the second colonial exploitation, Vietnamese society was deeply divided.

* Feudal landlord class:

– Great landlords: closely colluded with the French colonialists, oppressed and exploited the people, and resisted the revolution.

– Central and small landowners: have anti-imperialist spirit, join patriotic movements when conditions permit.

* Bourgeoisie:

– The commercial bourgeoisie has interests attached to the empire, so they closely associate politically with them.

– National bourgeoisie: more or less nationalistic, anti-imperialist democracy, feudalism, but unstable stance, easy to compromise.

* The petty bourgeoisie: rapidly increasing in number; has revolutionary enthusiasm and is an important force in the national and democratic revolution in Vietnam.

* Peasant class: being heavily oppressed and exploited, it has anti-imperialist and feudalistic spirit, is an enthusiastic and numerous force of the revolution.

* Working class: growing rapidly in number and growing in political consciousness, having patriotic spirit, being the main force and holding the leadership role of the revolution.


1. Activities of Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chau Trinh and some overseas Vietnamese

a. Phan Boi Chau’s activities

– At the end of 1917, Phan Boi Chau was freed by the French colonialists.

– Phan Boi Chau received the influence of the October revolution.

– While it was impossible to change the situation, the patriotic and revolutionary movement in Vietnam had many new changes. In June 1925, Phan Boi Chau was arrested by the French colonialists and brought back to Hue.

b. Phan Chau Trinh’s activities.

– In 1922, King Khai Dinh went to France to attend a colonial exhibition

⇒ Phan Chau Trinh wrote the letter of the Seven Things, outlining 7 crimes worthy of being cut by the king.

– Organizing speeches, condemning the monarchy and mandarins in Vietnam.

– Continue to exhort “open the people’s will, shake the people’s air, and live the people’s life”.

– In June 1925, Phan Chau Trinh returned home, continued to propagate and destroy the monarchy, promote civil rights, …

c. Activities of some overseas Vietnamese

– 1925, overseas Vietnamese in France established the organization “Association of Indochinese intellectual workers”.

– 1923, Tam Tam Commune was established in Guangzhou (China). On June 19, 1924, Pham Hong Thai organized the assassination of the French Governor General in Sa Dien (Guangzhou, China).

2. Activities of the bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie, workers

a. Activity of the bourgeoisie

– In 1919, organized a boycott of overseas Chinese bourgeoisie, mobilizing Vietnamese people to use Vietnamese goods.

In 1923, the French capitalist fought against the monopoly of Saigon’s commercial port and the French capitalist’s monopoly on rice export in Cochinchina.

– Establishing political organizations to gather fighting forces:

+ Constitutional Party (led by Bui Quang Chieu)

+ Nam Phong group (leading by Pham Quynh), Trung Bac Tan Van group (leading by Nguyen Van Vinh).

– Using the press to defend their interests, put up a number of slogans demanding freedom and democracy to gather forces, enlist the support of the masses to put pressure on France.

Comment: The struggles of the bourgeoisie are still heavy on economic goals; The fighting attitude was not consistent, it was easy to come to a compromise when the French colonialists conceded their rights.

b. The struggle of the petty bourgeoisie:

– Establishment of political organizations to gather fighting forces: Vietnam Nghia Doan, Vietnamese Association, Youth Party, …

– Established progressive publishing houses such as: Cuong Hoc Thuc Commune, Nam Dong Thu Commune, Quan Hai Tung Thu

– Published many newspapers propagating progressive ideas such as: Bell chime, Young Annam, Country people ..

– Some other fighting activities:

+ Struggle for the French authorities to release patriot Phan Boi Chau (1925).

+ Commemoration ceremony, mourning for Phan Chau Trinh (1926),…

Comments: exciting but temporary, easily broken when being suppressed by the French colonialists or given concessions.

c. Workers movement.

After World War I, the Vietnamese workers’ movement developed to a higher level:

– The form of struggle changed from smashing machines, burning factories, etc. to striking.

Some of the first political organizations of the proletariat appeared, such as the Trade Union (1920), the Far Eastern Ship Workers Federation (1921), etc.

– August 1925, Ba Son workers’ strike won. => Marking a new step of the workers’ movement – Vietnamese workers initially entered an organized struggle with clear political goals.

3. Activities of Nguyen Ai Quoc

a. Typical activities of Nguyen Ai Quoc in the years 1919 – 1924

Time Activities of Nguyen Ai Quoc
1919 – Send “claims of the people of Annam” to the Versailles Conference.

– Read the first draft of Lenin’s thesis on national and colonial problems.

– Participated in the Congress of Tassels, voted in favor of joining the Communist International and establishing the French Communist Party.

Nguyen Ai Quoc attended the Congress of Tassels (December 1920)


– Establishment of the Colonial Union.

– Report to the poor.

– Writing articles for newspapers: Humanitarian, Worker’s Life, …

1922 – Staying in France for revolutionary activities: studying the Russian October Revolution and Marxism-Leninism, writing articles for progressive newspapers, spreading progressive books about Vietnam, etc.
1923 – Going to the Soviet Union to attend the International Peasants Conference.

– Attend the V Congress of the Communist International.

– At the end of 1924, Nguyen Ai Quoc left the Soviet Union to return to Guangzhou (China) to continue revolutionary activities.

b. Nguyen Ai Quoc’s dedication to the Vietnamese revolution (1919-1924)

– Determining the right way to save the country for the Vietnamese people – the revolutionary path of the proletariat

– Prepare ideological, political and organizational for the birth of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

Solving exercises in History textbook 12 Lesson 12

Question 1

How did the second French colonial exploitation affect the economic situation and social class in Vietnam?


Economic: Although Vietnam’s economy has undergone some changes, it is still a poor, backward and underdeveloped agricultural economy.

Regarding the class division: Besides the old classes, Vietnamese society appeared new classes, continued to be divided and had a direct impact on the ability to participate in the revolution…

Verse 2

Make a calendar of Nguyen Ai Quoc’s activities from 1919-1925 according to the following contents: time, activity content, meaning.



Active content


June 18, 1919 Send to the Versailles conference the claim of the people of Annam, demanding that the French Government and allied countries recognize the rights of the Vietnamese people.

Created a big buzz in both France and Vietnam.


Read the first draft of theses on the national and colonial question.

Affirming the Vietnamese people’s path to independence and freedom.


Participants in the 18th National Congress of the French Socialist Party, voting in favor of joining the Communist International and establishing the French Communist Party.

Express his stance and become one of the founding participants of the French Communist Party.


Nguyen Ai Quoc and some patriots of several ethnic groups founded the Colonial Union in Paris, fighting together against colonialism.

Affirming the international spirit of the proletariat.

June 1923

He went to the Soviet Union to attend the Peasants’ International Conference and the V Congress of the Communist International.

Connecting the Vietnamese revolution to become a part of the proletarian revolution.


People came to Guangzhou to propagate and educate the revolutionary theory, and to build organizations for the Vietnamese people’s revolution for national liberation.

Entering the period of perfect preparation of theory and organization for the national liberation revolution of the Vietnamese people.

Sentence 3

Please comment on the national democratic movement in Vietnam in the years 1919-1925


+ The movement took place enthusiastically, with many different forms of struggle (such as the movement of Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chau Trinh, the movement of the bourgeoisie and the petty bourgeoisie). Although the movements have not yet reached final victory. but it has contributed to affirming the fighting spirit of the Vietnamese people.

+ Activities during the years 1919-1925 of Nguyen Ai Quoc helped him affirm the way to save the country for the Vietnamese people: The revolutionary path of the Proletariat.


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